I hope the enclosed material
is of interest to you.

There is no doubt anymore - outside the
solar system, Einstein's complicated Theory of a non-linear
gravitation does prevail considerably over Newton's linear. Can the
so-called **THEORY OF
EVERYTHING** be unraveled at
last?

Christopher J.
Corbally, Vatican Observatory Research Group

*(Christophorus Clavius - the distinguished mathematician,
who participated in the calendar reform of 1582)

A gyroscope at point **B** on the
line **A-C** makes *n*
rotations with respect to the central point **A** in one
complete period of revolution around **A**.

Logically, the gyroscope must make *n + 1* rotations with respect to the distant point
**C**.

Assuming the gyroscope makes 365.24219878 rotations per
revolution around **A**, and
within a certain time period it makes 25800 revolutions, the total
amount of rotations with respect to **A **must
equal:

Assuming
further that the gyroscope precesses and describes a complete
retrograding precession cycle in 25800 periods of revolution, how
many rotations does the make in that time period with respect to
**A**?

Please,
refer again to the above diagram. Imagine the Earth standing still at
point "B" in its orbital plane on the line "A-C" between the sun "A"
and the fixed star "C". We will assume that the Earth has already
completed its 25 800 revolutions of 365.24219878 rotations each,
without precession.

Now we will make up mathematically for the one
retrograding or precession motion of the Earth at point "B" in its
orbital plane - first with a vertical and then with a 23‡°
inclined Earth's axis:

*equivalent to
the regression of the fixed stars by yearly 50.26" on
average

First of all we
must understand what this enormous time-discrepancy really means, as
the additional time interval of one year is only seemingly 'created'.
How else can one explain a retrograding rotation of the Earth with an
inclined axis, which has four seasons appear at the same time?
Ultimately, this phenomenon would imply that the vernal equinox has
to retrograde around the sun by **not only 50.26" per year, but per
day!**

At some point in history the theory was put forward -
maybe out of ignorance or even intentionally – that a
precession of the Earth is the cause for the steady regression of the
fixed stars, a phenomenon already observed since ancient times. It
was realized, that due to such a precession a gradual shift of the
seasons has to occur. In order to mathematically justify this theory,
a sidereal year was 'invented'. Its time interval is suppose to be
about 20 minutes longer than the precisely defined tropical year of
31 556 925.9747 seconds - the fundamental physical time interval for
the definition of the SI second, an internationally accepted Standard
of Physical Measurement.

At the
beginning of the 1950's, when accurate clocks and methods of sidereal
time measurement were available to precisely determine the tropical
year, it became evident that a precession of the Earth cannot exist,
as it was believed. Instead of accepting this truth, it was decided -
for whatever reason - to obscure this knowledge by introducing the
new and complicated reference-system of the vernal
equinox*.

* ".... a base
position from which the mean time can be calculated was established.
This base position is the vernal equinox, an imaginary point in the
sky that is, nevertheless, calculated with great accuracy by
astronomers. Practically, the location of the vernal equinox is found
by reference to the position of the fixed stars." Funk &
Wagnall’s New Encyclopedia

The natural and
dependable system of the 'sidereal-time-clock' became obsolete. New
star catalogues and elaborates tables including formulas to
pre-calculate the positions of stars were now available, which made
the actual measurement of sidereal time unnecessary. It could not
have been made any easier, especially for hobby-astronomers. Since
there were no skeptics there was no suspicion that something was not
right about the theory of the precession of the Earth.

Completely
contradictory to this statement is therefore the assertion about the
time period of the so-called true sidereal year, which only appears
to exist in the supposition that a precession of the Earth exists.
But this would mean that the time interval for each consecutive
revolution period of the Earth around the sun with respect to the
position of the fixed stars should be about 20 minutes longer than
the tropical year (the absolute physical measurement standard for
time). **This is in reality
not the case.**

"Or does
one seriously believe, that because of precession the Earth can
'loose' an entire year after 25 800 revolutions around the sun, only
to have 25 799 tropical years completed?"

In order to visualize this absurdity, the sun and the
stars will have to rise and set one additional time in about every 71
years throughout this whole precession cycle. And this extraordinary
cosmic phenomenon has to occur without being noticed, despite precise
methods of time-measurement. But then again, how is it possible to
measure something that does not exist?

My meridian tansitition time measurement with respect to
**Sirius** (using the UTC atomic-time radio signal
from WWV Fort Collins/Colorado), which I conducted over a period of 5
consecutive years, resulted in the following mean sidereal rotation
time for the Earth.

Obviously, as indicated by the adjective mean all
variations in time caused by periodic or any other fluctuations of
the Earth's axis, as well as the assumed precession of the axis, must
be included in the 5-year observation period. Technically speaking
this is still the easiest and best available method to measure and
determine a mean sidereal day.

The total time
span between those two measurements is exactly 157 680 286
seconds.

(5 calendar years
including one leap day is 5 × 365 days of 86400 s each, plus the time
difference of 286 s on the last day)

In this same time
interval exactly 5 × 366 sidereal days (meridian transitions) were
completed. As a result, the mean sidereal day with respect to
**Sirius** is:

157 680 286 s ÷ 1830 = **86164.09071 seconds.**

A maximum error in observation of ± 0.5 seconds
between the two (first and last) meridian transition of
**Sirius **during the period of 5 years would have the
following results:

minimum: 157 680 285.5 s ÷ 1830 meridian transitions
= 86164.09044 s

maximum: 157 680 286.5 s ÷ 1830 meridian transitions
= 86164.09098 s

Due to the apparent precession, the measurable mean
sidereal day should be about 86164.09966 seconds, since logically the
actual mean rotation time of the Earth by 86164.0905382 seconds can
only be measured with a delay in time relative to the inertial
position of the fixed stars. In other words, if precession were
indeed to occur, absolutely no fixed star can ever have a mean
meridian transition time of 86164.0905382 seconds.

This physical fact would imply that my measurement with
respect to **Sirius
**contains an error of
observation by about 16.7 seconds (5 × 3.34 s per year), not to
mention the +1223 s with each sidereal year!

It can be
concluded, that the annual regression of the fixed stars by 50.26" on
average allows for only two explanations:

Since it was
proven that a precession of the Earth cannot exist as claimed,
Earth's mean sidereal rotation time of 86164.0905382 s can only
coincide with one true "axis-star", which is orbited by our solar
system.

The assumption that Earth's polar axis precesses opposite
to its direction of rotation, whereby the Earth, after completing a
retrograding precessional cycle around the sun, looses one year of
about 365 mean solar days with respect to the apparently true
sidereal year of 365.256361 mean solar days, although paradoxically
one additional tropical year must occur due to precession, does also
completely contradict the precise mathematical time-keeping of our
civil calendar.

It is an undisputed fact, that our civil calendar is
mathematically synchronized to the actual revolution period of 31 556
925.9747 seconds. This physical time interval for the Earth to
complete its orbit around the sun with respect to the inertial system
defined by the position of the fixed stars is still the absolute
criterion for time.

The absolute
center of the Earth "B" has completed one full 360° revolution
around the sun "A" after exactly 31 556 925.9747 seconds or one
tropical year.

Assuming for the moment, that the Earth's rotational axis
does not precess, an observer on the Earth's surface, for example,
would measure with the aid of a meridian-transition instrument
exactly 365.24219878 rotations of the Earth with respect to the sun
"A" and exactly 366.24219878 rotations with respect to the inertial
point of reference or fixed star "C", since:

The fixed star
"C" will appear to our observer approximately 21 600 seconds later in
his meridian-transition instrument, since he will notice a time-delay
of about 9.12 milliseconds per day* or about 3.34 seconds per year
with respect to the fixed star "C". Of course, the same is true with
respect to the sun "A".

*(Note: 86400 s ÷ 25800 revolutions equals about 3.34
s per revolution or 9.12 ms per rotation)

Interestingly, our observer will also notice another
phenomenon taking place during this quarter period of precession,
because the 23‡° inclined Earth's axis has changed its direction
in space with respect to the sun or the fixed stars. In other words,
the sun "moved up" by 23‡° along the ecliptic during those 6450
years, while for example the fixed star "C" appears 23‡° lower
in our observer's meridian instrument.

If we were to choose a specific point in time when the
Earth "B" crosses the imaginary line "A-C", say January 1 at 00:00 h,
then after 6450 revolutions of the Earth "B" exactly 6450 × 31 556
925.9747 s have elapsed with respect to the sun "A". However, due to
the assumed precessional motion of the Earth's axis, our observer
still has to consider the time delay of 21 600 s.

Since the Gregorian Calendar* has a defined length of
365.2425 days, it is only about 26.03 seconds longer (365.2425 ×
86400 s = 31 556 952 s) than the tropical year of 31 556 925.9747
seconds. Therefore, after 6450 revolutions of the Earth a time
difference of 167 893.5 s or 46.64 hours must occur and our calendar
must then indicate December 30, instead of January 1. Due to the
assumed precession the 21 600 s have to be deducted now from the 167
893.5 seconds; 46.64 h minus 6 h = 40.64 h

Consequently, the total time difference that our calendar
needs to be corrected for is almost 2 days.

* See my attached diagram: **Time deviation and adjustment of the civil calendar
to the tropical- and sidereal year**

It was said,
that after exactly 6450 revolutions of the Earth, while crossing the
imaginary line "A-C" at point "B" on January 1 at 00:00 h, our civil
calendar will indicate December 30. However, in those 6450 years the
position of the sun relative to the Earth's equator has also changed
at point "B", and instead of winter on the Northern Hemisphere it is
spring. Based on further calculations, this paradoxical shift in time
appears to create an additional difference in time of 91.31 days (º
year) in 6450 years or about 20 minutes per year:

91.31 days × 86400 s/day ÷ 6450 years = about 1223
s/year

[ ] Your line of
argumentation and your mathematical proof, regarding the
non-existence of a sidereal year of 365.256361 mean solar days and
consequently the precession of the Earth, is wrong, despite the claim
that a precession cycle must cause an additional year with respect to
the sun. "What cannot be, must not be", and I have no time or
interest to deal with this matter.

[ ] I am able to specify and prove to you the following
mistakes you have made in your line of argumentation, regarding the
non-existence of a sidereal year of 365.256361 mean solar days and
consequently the precession of the Earth - see my attached
letter.

[ ] I am willing to have knowledgeable experts review my
mathematical arguments, as well as my experiments or observations to
disprove your arguments regarding your theory of the non-existence of
a sidereal year of 365.256361 mean solar days and the non-existing
precession of the Earth. I understand that you offer a research grant
of **$ 10,000. -
US** for officially proving
your arguments wrong. I would like to receive more information
concerning this offer.

[ ] Your arguments are mathematically correct and seem
logical. However, I am not sure and would like to have first of all
the following questions answered:

[ ] Please,
send me additional material, as well as copies of your correspondence
with the National Research Council of Canada, NASA's Jet Propulsion
Laboratory in Pasadena, CA and other renowned institutes, individuals
and responsible government officials.

[ ] I would like to have more information regarding your
time-measurement with respect to Sirius.

[ ] **This matter
is very interesting. Your arguments are convincing and I would like
to help you in the following manner:**

Name:____________________________________________________________

Address: _________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

Date:___________________ Signature:
______________________________

x1 = Tropical year of 365.24219878 mean solar days of
86,400s

x1 = Sidereal year of 366.24219878 mean sidereal days of
86,164.09054s

x1a = Sirius (Sothis) year of 366.24219878 mean
Sirius-meridian-transitions of 86,164.09071s*

*this value is
based on own measurements

x2 = x1 plus the
annual time-deviation of 50".26 (regression of the
fixed-stars)

x3 = Gregorian Calendar of 365.2425 days since the
calendar-reform of 1582 AD (because 0.2425 = 97/400 see also
x4)

x4 = Civil Calendar
of 365.2500 mean solar days including a 400year-leap-cycle (97 leap
days in 400 years - i.e. at full centuries that cannot be evenly
divided by 400 the leap day is omitted, e.g. 1700, 1800 and 1900
AD)

x4a = Julian
Calendar of 365.2500 mean solar days (prior to the calendar reform of
1582 AD)

x5 = Apparently, the true sidereal year (fixed-star to
fixed-star) of 365.256361 mean solar days

"First of all,
you must know that in calculating Time the ...beings of that planet
(Earth) take the 'year' as the basic unit ...and they define the
duration of their 'year' as the time it takes for their planet to
make a certain movement in relation to another cosmic concentration -
that is to say, the period during which their planet, in the process
of 'falling' and 'catching up', describes ...a ... revolution around
its sun." "But since ... you do not yet have any idea of the
exceptional peculiarities of Time, you must first be told that
genuine Objective Science defines this cosmic phenomenon thus:Time in
itself does not exist, there is only the totality of the results
issuing from all the cosmic phenomena present in a given place. Time
in itself no being can understand by Reason or perceive by any outer
or inner being-function. It is possible to evaluate Time only by
comparing different cosmic phenomena occurring under the same
conditions and in the same place where Time is being considered. It
should be noted that in the Great Universe all phenomena, without
exception, wherever they arise and are manifest, are simply
successive, lawful 'fractions' of some whole phenomenon which has its
prime arising on the '... Sun Absolute'.In consequence, all cosmic
phenomena, wherever they proceed, have an 'objective' significance.
Time alone has no objective significance, since it is not the result
of the fractionating of any definite cosmic phenomenon. Issuing
>from nothing, but always blending with everything while remaining
self-sufficiently independent, Time alone in the whole of the
Universe can be named and extolled as the
'Ideally-Unique-Subjective-Phenomenon'. Thus, ...Time ...is unique in
having no source on which its origin depends, and it alone, like
'divine Love' always flows independently and blends proportionately
with all the phenomena present in all the arisings in any given place
in our Great Universe." "...since Time has no source of its arising,
and its presence cannot be precisely established, as can be done for
all other phenomena in every cosmic sphere, Objective Science has,
for its examination of Time, ...(a) standard unit.... Objective
Science has established ....that all ...beings ...sense the
....action, by which they define Time, forty-nine times more slowly
than it is sensed ....on the ... Sun Absolute. Consequently, the
process of the flow of Time is forty-nine times quicker for the
beings on ....planet Earth ....than ...on the Sun
Absolute."

"If Gurdjieff had intended his meaning to be readily
accessible to every reader, he would have written the book
differently. He himself used to listen to chapters read aloud, and if
he found that key passages were taken too easily - and therefore
almost inevitably too superficially - he would rewrite them in order,
as he put it, to "bury the dog deeper." When people corrected him and
said that he surely meant "bury the bone deeper," he would turn on
them and say it is not the 'bones' but the 'dog' that you have to
find. The dog is Sirius, the dog star, which stands for the spirit of
wisdom in the Zoroastrian tradition."

Marcel Griaule and Germain Dieterlen in